Nietzsche 2nd essay genealogy of morality - Note's on Nietzsche's Genealogy
To think in terms of causality, to see and anticipate from afar, to posit ends and means with certainty, to be able above all to reckon and calculate! They make threats backed up by sanctions and the authority of the sovereign; they claim to hold a monopoly of legitimate power, a task easily accomplished by taking law to be the earthbound shadow of morality.
Force and compulsion acquire greater traction if viewed as pressed into the service of morality. The qualities the law requires become human ones; to be human is to be a legal subject; a human without a law is to not be so. If Aristotle suggested the polis was where men went to become citizens, or a multitude of social theorists suggested the social makes us who we are, Nietzsche adds a twist: it is the law that makes the entity we regard as the liberal political subject, the legal subject, the mythical sovereign human.
Sovereign man is made, not found, by a long and tedious process of enforcing law and custom. The law imposes an uncompromising and tightly regulated social reality to create its subjects; its punishments, its penal code exert themselves to do so. For Nietzsche, a phenomenological flux gives way to the solidity of the temporally enduring person; this process is facilitated by the molding of the law, from the metaphysical forge of the law emerges sovereign man.
Even responsibility, whether moral or legal, is a theoretical construct, a post-facto abductive explanation of a particular punishment. This domain, the legal relationship of buyer and seller and debtor and creditor, enabled moral evaluation of humans on terms dictated by them: to violate a contract came to mean violating a promise, and hence a moral failure.
A new prescriptive language emerged: to disobey the laws pertaining to contract repayment was to be guilty of a moral failure. Without law, there is no society and consequently, no politics. Our notions of justice and injustice are legal creations; without the law, they lack meaning. The criminal law becomes impersonal; crimes committed by individuals against individuals are crimes against the state and the legal system.
An extra-human entity has appeared on the scene: the Law. For Nietzsche then, we are not born moral agents. We are made moral; the mark of the moral is an imprint of our history; it bears traces of our past, of our most important social, economic and legal relationships. Like Nietzsche describing horrific punishments in medieval Germany, Ambedkar dwells on Brahminical malpractices which include Gandhian dharna under the Peshwas.
He also reports an incident where the followers of Zarathustra had thrust him out of a Lodge they owned on account of his caste! No doubt he was aware of the theory that Zoroastrianism fell because the priests denied literacy to the masses.
Even after taxes on Agriculture became insignificant, the Law was not inclined to grant the types of Hohfeldian rights in agricultural property which involved promises made by agents assumed to be in a weaker cognitive position. By contrast, promises made the high caste were considered to require no further warrant save the supposed benevolence of the promise maker. The entire state of Bihar was supposedly gifted away by this process with catastrophic results for the Rule of Law.
However, once genealogy relates to births on other planes of being- e. Ontologically dysphoric genealogy constructive of real world ethical genidentity has crowded out even the possibility of public justification. Ambedkar in is in a curious position. What a wonderful satire on the men of conscience- Cripps, Halifax, Gandhi not to mention Quaker busybodies like Horace Alexander or idealists like Louis Johnson- truly, Aristophanes could not have invented such a comedy! The Nietzschean critique of religion is itself divided into three parts,.
Genesis of Religions. History of Christianity. Christian Ideals. It must be noted, however, that the context stresses the social-historical aspects of the evolution of religious phenomena in relation to nihilism. This historical-metaphysical background may thus favor a Heideggerian reading as long as we do not fall prey to a structuralist imposition of a grille de lecture to the textual totality of the Nietzschean work, as in a methodical formalization.
The death of God signals, therefore, the threshold of tragedy, to be rediscovered in the infinite horizon of seas never sailed before --cf. Zarathustra, the solitary archaeologist of meaning, begins his ministry under the sign of the death of God as he set out to discover and explore a decodified humanity, in light of past civilizations, leading to its decomposition and whose tragic fate has already been announced in the very negation of tragedy by religious belief. The tragic fate of tragedy in the Western world was, in effect, a theme that Nietzsche had already explored in his GT, and inspired much of Foucault's interest in the cultural diagnosis of civilizations.
In this case, neither theism nor its dialectical negation would suffice to solve the Nietzschean problematic. Nietzsche's Critique of Kantian Morality. EH GM --, Nietzsche undertakes in a quasi-methodic fashion his project of transvaluation as a new demand for the self-overcoming of "modern man": "we need a critique of moral values, the value of these values themselves must first be called into question.
Genealogy is thus presented as the climax of a critique of morals, already outlined and partially elaborated in Beyond Good and Evil , though in these two books Kant's morality is approached in a more systematic fashion than in the Gay Science. The critique of morals emerges not so much as the logical moment that follows the suppression of religion, but as being adjacent to the very genealogy of modern man.
Modernity cannot conceal, therefore, the moral character that constitutes itself as such, in that "'autonomous' and 'moral' are mutually exclusive," according to Nietzsche --contra Kant. Thus, whatever is "moral" is precisely what ought to be overcome in the conception of humanity that culminated with German idealism.
The atheist, creative thinking of the modern "free spirit" is to be thus opposed to theistic, metaphysical thought, no longer guided and limited by religious belief. In this Kant and Nietzsche share the same conviction that it is necessary to use one's own understanding, sapere aude , so that the spirit of freedom be fulfilled --despite all the divergences as for the meaning of such ideal of freedom, overall in the concepts of "will" and "free will. The question of morals is thus decisive for a correct evaluation of these divergences.
What is at stake, therefore, is the articulation of historicity and humanity so as to avoid the subordination of human development to the logic of progress and the transcendental foundations of morals. Thus, one of the greatest contributions of Nietzsche consists in having denounced a conception of history that presupposes a transcendental unity --typical of the soteriological reading of Christianity. Origin of Moral Valuations. The Herd. General Remarks on Morality. How Virtue is Made to Dominate. The Moral Ideal.
Further Considerations for a Critique of Morality. The entire question of morality, according to Nietzsche, has been reformulated as a question of faith, as the subtle, dogmatic ideal that remains faithful to the "beyond" --from Plato to Kant and Hegel. This interpretation itself is of extra-moral origin.
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- Friedrich Nietzsche's"Genealogy of Morality"(),Essay 2(Section )!
I have adopted a critical, textual hermeneutic that simply refers us back to the context of the previous discussion on truth and metaphor: there are no universals in the Nietzschean lexicon. Such is the great pia fraus of the Christian religion. The critique of religion and the critique of morals presuppose the conception of sense and value --such as in the formula "good and evil"-- that should not escape the boundaries of critique, as if it were some sort of "immaculate conception. The nihilism is a radical, irreversible event:. What does nihilism mean? That the highest values devaluate themselves.
The aim is lacking; "why? The radical critique that Nietzsche undertakes against Christian morality provides us with the methodological clue and the very Sache of his experimentalism, still in the "Versuch einer Umwertung aller Werte. The same fate is, in effect, reserved for the socialist and democratic systems. God is dead, therefore, there is nothing to be grounded in, neither in moral nor in ontological terms.
It is not so much the question of having nothing beyond God, but of having no fundamental "beyond" at all. All we have been left with is the immanence of the world, co-originary with the innocent becoming of human nature. Nothing else, nothing beyond, above or underneath us. Nothing is given as principle or end, cause or reason to give meaning to what we are. To the Kantian Paukenschlag that opposes "the starry sky above me" to "the moral law within me" KpV A , Nietzsche proposes a gaya scienza that transgresses the very boundaries of whatever is "outside" and "inside," by the affirmation of a law without purity or end:.
Vorausbestimmt zur Sternenbahn,. Was geht dich, Stern, das Dunkel an? Roll selig hin durch diese Zeit! Ihr Elend sei dir fremd und weit! Nur ein Gebot gilt dir: sein rein! Nietzsche and the Critique of Subjectivity. Gaya is the goddess Earth, the only one to whom fidelity is due.
Friedrich Nietzsche's"Genealogy of Morality" (),Essay 2 (Section )
However, the Nietzschean alternative to Kant's critique and to Right- and Left-Hegelianisms could not be merely reduced to an ambitious overcoming of the philosophy of his time, as if Nietzsche preached just another gospel of "beyond. But we who are neither Jesuits nor democrats, nor even German enough, we good Europeans and free, very free spirits --we still feel it, the whole need of the spirit and the whole tension of its bow.
And perhaps also the arrow, the task, and --who knows? It seems, therefore, that in spite of all metaphoricity and of dissemination of signifiers, the text offers us the interpretative project of a human existence. The fact that he speaks in the first person of the plural wir ,including, "with cynicism and innocence," the very author of this philosophical prelude, already reveals the ethical, political relevance and the polemical character of this collection of thoughts.
It is not by chance that Nietzsche introduces in the preface the theme of the book with the enigmatic, phallocentric words: "Supposing truth is a woman The radicalism of Nietzschean aestheticism does not reside, however, in the reduction of philosophy to an aesthetic relation of appropriation and expropriation of the beautiful and the true, but in the critical immanentism of his perspectivism. The Platonic opposition of sensible to the intelligible, of which the mimesis - episteme opposition is the particular case, permeates, according to the Nietzschean diagnosis, all the development of a metaphysics of values that bridge the Aristotelian realism to Kantian idealism:.
Consider any morality [ Moral ] with this in mind: what there is in it of "nature" teaches hatred of the laisser aller , of any all-too-great freedom, and implants the need for limited horizons and the nearest tasks --teaching the narrowing of our perspective [ Verengerung der Perspektive ], and thus in a certain sense stupidity, as a condition of life and growth.
Thus, in the first chapter, when dealing with the "Prejudices of Philosophers," Nietzsche unmasks the "will to truth" der Wille zur Wahrheit by calling into question the value Wert of this will: "The fundamental faith of the metaphysicians is the faith in opposite values. The reason why Nietzsche's conception of agency is here reconstituted, together with its correlative view of subjectivity and power, is to place the valuation of the human being within a whole play of forces Gesamtspiel , where the will to power is defined as praxis , pathos , physis , interpretation, self-reflection, and history.
To be sure, the tension between a modern conception of the domination of nature Hobbes and the Romantic conception of the harmonic return to nature Rousseau seems to persist in the Nietzschean elaboration of the will to power --perhaps because of his reading of Heraclitus and Parmenides.
In effect, the will to power and genealogy are complementary concepts, insofar as all cultural, historical genesis is effected in human acting. The two greatest philosophical points of view devised by Germans :.
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