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Racism in huck finn term papers. Essay questions othello. Sqa intermediate 1 english past papers. Akbars essay policy religious. Cancer related research paper topics. Essays on transportation. How to write a narrative essay igcse. Essays worked harvard. Essays on dances with wolves. For Imberty , the generative theories in music are hampered much more by contemporary musical currents than by the music of the world because most such world music—at least, among the most well-known—is organised so that its sounds are grouped around a referent, known either as a tonic or by some other name.
This could be considered as equilibrium between experience and hearing. Hence, generally, when we listen, we analyse according to tonal criteria. But when a melody does not follow the hierarchy of tonal functions, our system cannot accommodate it, and we generally cannot comprehend it Reybrouck, In the case of music with a nonhierarchic structure, the listener constructs a new hierarchy of rules to replace the tonal rules Bianchi, ; Dibben, ; Imberty, ; Lerdahl, a.
That is to say, the issue is to know how, in the absence of defined structural referents, the listener can reduce the musical surface and subsequently rebuild a system of very general temporal relations that can be applied beyond a specific case Imberty, Thus, the theoretical principles of atonality will not be accepted or rejected only on the basis of perceptive comprehension, but, by extension, on the basis of the ease of internal hierarchic coding Bianchi, An important aspect of hierarchic organisation is that each resulting level is an extraction of the most salient structural features of the lower levels, and hence, hierarchic organisation is based on the redundancy of information.
Dibben also states that, in atonal music, as there is no tonal hierarchy, the listener must form a hierarchy of events based on other parameters. She then presents an experiment to determine whether participants deduce a hierarchy of events in atonal pieces and if so, which criterion can be used for this hierarchy.
Thus, the relative salient event replaces the tension—relaxation structure of tonal music. This salient event produces a provisional hierarchy, which is always modifiable and is doubtless a feature of atonal music Imberty, But the issue is to know how this salient event can create the equivalent of the tension—relaxation alternations found in tonal music. This means that the perceptive organisation is a hierarchy of saliences more than a functional syntactic hierarchy; that is, perceptive organisation rests on temporal phenomena more than on phenomena of functional value.
Imberty concludes that the macrostructure of atonal music is made up of the hierarchisation of salient events and tensions and is the equivalent of a combination of two types of hierarchy, which Imberty calls order structure and order relation structure. This author takes into account the role of these cues in the formation of groupings that lead to the apprehension of a global description of the work during its perception in real time.
Their work focused on the cue extraction in musical groupings. Berio alternates this sonorous material in a way that is neither regular nor always marked. For Imberty, the problem of auditive segmentation emerges in the way the listener differentiates these two types of material perceptually. This experiment involved 24 participants who did not know the work, and who had to segment it during its audition.
The participants first listened to the work in order to familiarise themselves with it and, in successive hearings, they had to mark the changes, contrasts, interruptions, or any remarkable sound event. Clarke and Krumhansl carried out three experiments using the work of K.
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Dibben presented two experiments. In the first one, the goal was to investigate whether listeners hear atonal music in terms of the relative structural importance of events and whether audition is influenced by structural aspects of duration and metric. In the second one, she proposed that in the absence of clear rhythm, timbre, dynamic, and motivic information, the listener deduces relatively stable structural relationships between events in the musical surface.
While not forgetting the enculturation aspect, which conditions perception, poorer comprehension of nontonal music compared with tonal music may derive from the supporting structure of nontonal music and its relationship with human perception and cognition. The composer implements all the psychological resources derived from his human condition to create a work. We analysed the work from a perceptive perspective. The participants were students of advanced music studies. The experiment was carried out in two sessions separated by a four-week interval. The students did not know the work they had to listen to, and this was an essential requirement.
Pitch segmentation thesis - KristianHotelHausamseeAt
Moreover, they were specifically given instructions to avoid contact with this work in between sessions. The participants listened to the work three times twice in the first session and once other in the second session. They had to mark the segmentation cuts on the music score as they perceived them in real time.
The scores were given at the start of the audition of the work, which was listened from start to finish without disruption. They were collected after finishing the audition. Next, we performed an analysis of the interpretation of students. Participants were 42 students who were studying at higher conservatories. They all studied music for more than 10 years. A total of 26 participants played string instrument, 5 played keyboard instruments, 10 played wind instruments among them one, flute , and 1 studied analysis. Regarding the election of students, as it is a perceptive, nonanalytical test, their musical experience was relevant, but not their academic specialisation.
They all had some experience in the interpretation of contemporary music works. They were grouped according to their timetables within the academic organisation.
The participants had to take part in both the proposed sessions. This work was selected due to certain characteristics previously established for this investigation. We sought a contemporary music work written for a single instrument. This characteristic was considered because works with more complex textures would hinder the analysis of the musical surface. This work uses a traditional score. The chosen works also had to be unknown to the participants, and this was very important. Taking into account that these students were from the highest stage of musical formation, this was not easy because their musical repertory was extensive.
Moreover, the works should have some kind of sonorous register. The score of Takemitsu presents a continuous, permanently varied discourse, which is expressed with the same intervallic and dynamic material. This continuous discourse displays a linear movement in which each group could be a variation of the same idea, thereby continuously developing until the end of the piece. Takemitsu, two times, one right after the other. In this first audition, the participants did not know what they had to do, and they carried out this audition without the score.
In the second audition, they were given the score of the piece and requested to mark the cuts or segmentations they perceived with a vertical line across the staff while listening in real time. They were not allowed to look at the score until the music started to sound. They should be guided by their perceptive intuition, derived from their experience as listeners and interpreters. The decision we took of requesting them to reflect the segmentations in the music score allows for a group evaluation with a simple and attainable medium. As a previous reading is not permitted and the segmentation is performed in real time, the participants—people with great audition and musical interpretation experience—are aware of the importance of sound in music, that is, what is being constructed from what is written in the music score, although it sometimes may contradict the musical score.
The second session was to confirm their response; participants listened to the proposed work and were requested to perform the same task once again. The participants did not know either what they had to listen to in this second session or what they had to do. Participants were requested to perform the same task in both sessions, except that in the second session, there was no prior audition to become familiar with the work. There were some segmentation points in the second session that were absent in the first session and vice versa points in the first session that were absent in the second one.
The total number of points of both sessions was counted, taking into account this aspect. Thus, a total of 46 points were counted. The analysis of these data allowed us to determine the possible correspondence between the responses of the two sessions. Figure 1 shows the 46 segmentation points x axis and the correspondence quotients of each point in each session y axis. These points are 4, 6, 9, 19, 25, 27, 30, and Although we found some points appearing in one session but not in the other, we consider this unimportant because few participants chose these segmentation points 1, 2, or 3 participants.
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