Further, most pigs produced in accredited herds tend to be marketed as breeding animals.
PigProgress - Porcine Stress Syndrome (PSS)
Advanced notice to farms and suppliers is usually required to obtain younger pigs for research laboratories. Department of Agriculture. Herds of domestic pigs may be routinely provided with antibiotics, growth promotants, or other medications in the feed or water.
A listing of these medications can be obtained from the supplier, the herd's attending veterinarian, and the accredited herd's Farm Inspection Report. SPF pigs are not necessarily free of internal parasites. Light infections of roundworms, nodular worms, and coccidia may be found. SPF pigs are available in several breeds and as crossbreeds and therefore will vary in color.
Some research laboratories may prefer the white-skinned breeds to facilitate ear vein access. The method of transport from the farm must be evaluated. Movement in open-type stock trailers increases the chances of exposure to disease agents. SPF pigs are naive to many diseases. Agents such as Bordetella bronchiseptica and Pasteurella multocida can pass between species in the laboratory.
To maintain the SPF status of pigs, they must be isolated from other animals, including other strains of pigs such as miniature pigs. Most miniature pig herds are produced under conventional practices and include vaccinations for B. Vaccinated animals are free of the disease, not necessarily free of the infectious agent and therefore may transfer disease to the naive SPF pigs.
Several lines of domestic pigs are specifically bred to carry the gene Halothane gene responsible for malignant hyperthermia or porcine stress syndrome. If pigs are heterozygous for this trait, they partially express the trait and become more heavily muscled and show higher feed efficacy and improved meat quality. Pigs homozygous for this trait may suffer the clinical disease characterized by high fever and muscle fasciculations if unduly stressed or exposed to certain inhalant and injectable anesthetics.
Farms must carefully control breeding practices to avoid breeding carriers. Use of carrier animals should be carefully evaluated by investigators, as the partial expression of this gene in carriers may adversely alter research data. Several commercial suppliers also market SPF pigs. Request information on the herd from the supplier, the farm's attending veterinarian, and the national organization on breeds available, herd origin, and current health status.
If possible select SPF herds with long-standing accreditation. Request further health-related information if necessary, such as other tests that have been conducted on the herd. Many herd owners will supply samples for further diagnostic testing if requested. If possible, transfer animals in enclosed, temperature-controlled trucks without exposure to other pigs. Housing systems designed for dogs work well for small domestic pigs. Pigs have a natural rooting instinct and like to play with waterers and feeders.
Make sure accessories are fastened well to the unit. Smooth sharp edges on caging. Food and water bowl holders, and sharp, die-cut ventilation holes in stainless steel caging panels can result in severe nasal and oral lacerations on curious pigs. Plastic water piping should be out of reach. Minor lameness may be seen in newly arrived pigs if placed on flooring that is different from the herd of origin. Do not change diets rapidly.
Rapid change to laboratory type non-medicated diets can result in clinical diarrhea.
It is best to obtain a 2-week supply of feed from the supplier and make the conversion slowly. Most pigs are fed ad libitum on the farm and grow rapidly. Re-evaluate your facility traffic patterns, with consideration of the microbial status of each group of animals in the facility. In many laboratories, pigs are replacing other larger species of animals as prime research candidates. Similarities in the cardiovascular, urogenital, integumentary, skeletal, and digestive systems of swine to humans has contributed to increased use of pigs in research.
Further, because of these similarities, pig tissues and organs are currently being used and studied as human xenografts, with the potential for increased use in this area in the future. The growing need for swine of research quality demands higher health quality standards not generally available in commercial swine herds. Like other laboratory animals, improved health quality has been associated with advances in care and production practices derived from advances in gnotobiotic technology. Pigs are well suited for the gnotobiotic techniques: they breed easily often times per year and they produce large litters pigs per litter.
Pigs have a 6-layer, diffuse epitheliochorial placentation, which resists transmission of agents in utero, subsequently the young are less likely to acquire maternally derived diseases and do well under human foster care. However, as when procuring any SPF animal, each supplier must be evaluated.
Herds having long-term accreditation status by the National SPF Agency are free of the most common pathogens of pigs, but it is essential to understand specifically what care and standards have been used for each individual group or herd prior to their use in the biomedical laboratory. Following these general guidelines can help to provide porcine models with minimal disease-induced variability.
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Effects of porcine stress syndrome genotype on maternal traits in swine
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Introduction The domestic meat type pig, Sus scrofa domestica, has become a common research animal used in biomedical research due to similarities to humans in many of the organ systems. Table 1. In naive young pigs may see nervous and respiratory signs. Like other herpesviruses can cause death in aberrant hosts such as dogs, cats, and cattle.
Brucella suis. Open in new tab. Rules and regulations. The pig as a potential organ donor for man, a study of potentially transferable disease from donor pig to recipient man. Search ADS. Issue Section:. Download all figures. View Metrics. Email alerts New issue alert. Advance article alerts. Article activity alert. Maternal performance differences between porcine stress syndrome-normal and -carrier Landrace females. Kenneth Joseph Stalder , Lauren L. Christian , Max F. Rothschild , Emme C.
Correlated response in litter traits to selection for intramuscular fat in Duroc swine Ashley Lynn Bushman. References Publications referenced by this paper. Stress susceptibility of swine Lauren L. Christian , J. Porcine malignant hyperthermia susceptibility: hypersensitive calcium-release mechanism of skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum. Peter J. Prediction of the halothane Hal genotypes of pigs by deducing Hal, Phi, Po2, Pgd haplotypes of parents and offspring: results from a large-scale practice in Swedish breeds.
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