For this the manager must have a range of skills and communication skills that skillfully handled will solve favorable situations. The effect on managerial communication over the morale of his subordinates is evident, from the point where every employee believes that an important contribution to the success of the institution is brought by him , being attracted by a goal and having the feeling of being part of a successful organization.
Attitudes and motivations of people working in an organization, based on their need to feel involved, informed and prepared to participate in decisions that affect them. The greater the complexity of their tasks, the greater need for integration and coordination is greater so is the management communication system of an organization a key mechanism for achieving this integration and coordination.
In investigating the phenomenon studied, the assumptions underlying the research achievement were those supporting communication as a major resource for the functioning of the organization that provides effective leadership in the organization and reflects the performance possibilities both individual and on a level of the entire organizations.
The purpose of this paper is to highlight aspects of communication in the management process, to highlight the possibility of improving management communication within any organization.
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Handle: RePEc:ath:journl:vyip as. More about this item Keywords management ; communication ; research ; organization ; Statistics Access and download statistics. Corrections All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. Louis Fed. Help us Corrections Found an error or omission? This approach results in the acceptance and publishing of a greater percentage of submissions across a broader subject area. Libraries and librarians play a critical role in the aggregation, evaluation and dissemination of scholarly communication. The future of research libraries will be shaped by broader developments at research universities in the areas of creating, sharing, disseminating, and curating knowledge.
Universities face fundamental policy choices in all of the areas that have been recast by developments in information technology.
Many research libraries have formalized the role of Scholarly Communications Librarian and defined specific responsibilities, including the implementation of outreach programs to increase awareness relative to copyright particularly section of the US Copyright Act , open access , and other scholarly communication issues. Through these types of programs, librarians have established their role relative to the structure of the library organization by formalizing the discussion of these issues in research and e-learning activities.
They also contribute in teaching copyright literacy by being active in all stages of the research process.
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The modern research author requires a reliable and standardized method to make research data available to other members of their community. This need has resulted in the development of a new form of scholarly communication known as data publishing. The process involves making data accessible, reusable and citable for long term use and is more elaborate than simply providing access to a data file.
The same data can be accessed by multiple researchers to ask new questions or to replicate research for verification and augmentation. Categories of data differ among disciplines, as does its accessibility.
Many publications have begun to offer incentives to scholarly researchers to publish their data and have developed the necessary infrastructure in support of e-research. Technical, policy, and institutional factors are becoming more established.
The next phase will see the integration of the process into a standardized data publishing methodology. There are several types of data that researchers must to protect when collecting, handling, storing and sharing data to safeguard the confidentiality of contributors. There are three primary types of information. Personally identifiable information includes any data that allows the identity of an individual to whom the information applies to be realistically deduced by either direct or indirect means. Protected health information includes individually identifiable health information transmitted or maintained in any form or medium by a covered entity.
A common approach for data sharing that includes confidential material is through de-identification or anonymization. There are numerous techniques for the de-identification of data including simply removing specific variables or by using statistical techniques such as top-coding, collapsing or combining, sampling, swapping, or disturbing the data. For qualitative data, redaction can be used to hide data elements that cannot be made public.
Some diagrams are further broken down into separate activities.
In the following model walk-through each diagram is explained separately. The diagrams are numbered using the standard IDEF0 numbering scheme, which helps to keep track of the hierarchical position of each diagram. One aspect of IDEF0 modelling, which readers might notice, is the ambiguity concerning the use of information flows as either controls or inputs. A good case is the review of manuscripts.
The earlier version of the manuscript is used as an input being revised to produce a better version as output, and this is controlled by the reviews.
A Suggested Model of Communication Components
There is no general rule for this and often either choice could be justified. Note that this version of the model is the fourth and that the model has continuously evolved based on the feedback received. Version 3. This is the so-called context diagram for depicting the overall model. The context diagram is traditionally the starting node of all IDEF0 models, and contains only one activity describing the overall process. The philosophy of this diagram is to show how science as a global knowledge creating and sharing system can help improve everyday life as well as create new scientific knowledge, which is fed back into the existing body of scientific knowledge.
The main participants in the process are collectively shown as a mechanism arrow coming into the activity box from below, and the main drivers controlling the behaviour of the participants are shown coming in from above scientific curiosity, economic incentives. Also, scientific problems to be addressed by the research and the whole accessible body of existing scientific knowledge are seen as controls.
From an academic viewpoint the main output is new scientific knowledge. From the viewpoint of society that funds research the most important outcome is better quality of life. This diagram is crucial for understanding the life-cycle view adopted in this modelling effort. The whole life-cycle is seen as consisting of four separate stages.
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One reason for this is the importance research funders understood in the widest sense including basic university funding have in the shaping of the scientific communication chain, since they, through research contracts and university guidelines, have a strong indirect influence on where researchers choose to publish their work. Perform the research is the most resource demanding part of the system. Communicate the results is the most extensive part of the model.
The end result of this activity is called disseminated scientific knowledge, reflecting the viewpoint that scientific results which have been published, but which are not read by the intended readers are rather useless. The downstream activity apply the Knowledge is important in order to achieve the improved quality of life which research funders mainly are looking for. The global scientific communication system fulfils two functions; one is to communicate the knowledge as efficiently as possible.
The other is to act as a decision support system for university administrations, granting agencies etc. This part of the model depicts the decision support functions of the overall system. It is important to include in the overall model, since certain aspects of this part, for instance the use of journal impact factors as a proxy for quality, constitute strong barriers for innovations in the communication parts of the overall system.
Funding decisions are here understood to include both decisions about basic university funding e. The process can be seen as consisting of three separate parts, of which the evaluation of research proposals only applies to the decision-making about individual project applications. This diagram shows more in detail the part of the global information system that acts as a decision support system for university administrations and research funding organizations. At best, the publications themselves are assessed by peers, but very often due to time and resource constraints the status of the journal where a researcher has published is used as a proxy for quality.
Citation counts, using a system such as the ISI Web of Science, provide a reasonably objective measure of the impact of a particular publication, but only after a considerable time lag. The uploading of the metadata of a publication to a CRIS Current Research Information System is interesting from the information system development viewpoint, since the author is usually asked to do this, and since it would be very useful to integrate the CRIS system with the institutional repository of the same university Asserson and Simons CRIS systems are used in Finland, for instance, to produce the statistics that the Department of Education requires from all universities.
This diagram shows a highly simplified view of a typical research project. Note that one important feature of IDEF0 diagrams is that the consecutive activity boxes do not necessarily imply a strict order in time as in scheduling methods. Thus, the activity study existing scientific knowledge can go on after the other two activities have started.
The important thing is that it provides input to these. Clearly this is only one possible way of looking at the research process. The reason for choosing this view is that it clearly distinguishes the knowledge acquisition activity, which also is the topic of the later stages of the whole model. Here it is seen as providing input to the research that produces new scientific knowledge, whereas the later stages of the model show how other researchers utilize the results of this research for their own separate research projects.
Communication Process - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics
Note that, according to studies of their reading habits, academics spend around two to three months a year retrieving and reading scientific literature, in particular journal articles King et al. The efficiency of this activity, in terms of minimising the time and efforts spent on search and retrieval and in terms of being able to identify and getting access to the most relevant literature is the central issue of this modelling effort. The scientific communication process is divided into an informal and a formal part.
Informal communication is carried out in the form of oral presentations of all sorts person-to-person meetings, conference presentations as well as e-mail messages, whereas formal communication publishing relies on written texts and on quality control by peers. A central difference is that in informal communication the producer of the information usually has full control or awareness of who the recipients are e-mails to selected colleagues, presentations at seminars, etc.
In science, formal publishing usually has a highly specific meaning. It is often carried out in peer-reviewed outlets working papers of universities, for instance, are usually not included and, in particular, it is assumed to establish priority of new discoveries. In the model a more functional view is taken, where the pre-stages of formal publishing working papers, posting manuscripts to preprint servers etc. This diagram takes into account the fact the scientists not only publish traditional-looking textual accounts papers but also data and models.
Examples of the latter could include astronomical observation data, virtual reality models of historical artefacts, genome charts, and computer code. Until now the Open Access movement has mainly concentrated on facilitating access to the textual account of research results, in particular the peer reviewed journal literature, but unrestricted access to research data and models is currently receiving increasing attention Organization This part of the model is split into four different parts.
The first part, publish the results, consists of the activities which contribute to the communication and initial publishing of the results, typically involving the researcher himself and a publisher. The facilitate dissemination activity describes activities carried out by a large number of organizations such as information intermediaries, libraries, as well as information technology infrastructure such as Web search engines that facilitate for readers to find out about and retrieve publications of interest.
This is in contrast to the informal communication where the author usually is directly communicating with the recipients of the information. The third part of the communication chain is carried out by the recipients of the information in searching for, retrieving and studying publications.
In any life-cycle studies this part is extremely important, and it has also been profoundly affected by the Internet. The last part consists of the activities of readers in communicating further particularly valuable research results, through citing them, incorporating them in university textbooks etc. Publishing consists of two separate activities, the writing of the manuscript, which the researcher carries out alone or in a small group, usually taking into account feedback from colleagues, and the more formal publishing process, in which outside persons, such as conference organizers, journal editors and staff etc.
Note that a manuscript intended for later publication can have a later life of its own, since it can be uploaded to open access repositories on the Web. The writing of the manuscript is guided by a control called scientific writing style, which is a label used of a collection of formal guidelines and informal tradition taught to students by supervision of their work by more experienced academics.
The production of a proper publication in turn is partly guided by the norms of the scientific community which journals to publish in, etc.
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