This last purpose is perhaps the most important, and is the reason why many writers choose to write the introduction last , after they have written the main body , because they need to know what the essay will contain before they can give a clear plan. Although essays vary in length and content, most essays will have the same overall structure, including the introduction.
The structure is related to the purpose mentioned above. The introduction to an essay should have the following two parts:. The general statements will introduce the topic of the essay and give background information.
The background information for a short essay will generally just be one or two sentences. The general statements should become more and more specific as the introduction progresses, leading the reader into the essay some writers talk about "attracting the readers' attention", though for an academic essay, this is less important. For longer essays, the general statements could include one or more definitions , or could classify the topic, and may cover more than one paragraph. The following is an example of background statements for a short essay given below :.
Although they were invented almost a hundred years ago, for decades cars were only owned by the rich. Since the 60s and 70s they have become increasingly affordable, and now most families in developed nations, and a growing number in developing countries, own a car. These sentences introduce the topic of the essay cars and give some background to this topic situation in the past, the situation now. These sentences lead nicely into the thesis statement see below.
The thesis statement is the most important part of the introduction. It gives the reader clear information about the content of the essay, which will help them to understand the essay more easily. The thesis states the specific topic, and often lists the main controlling ideas that will be discussed in the main body.
It may also indicate how the essay will be organised, e. It is usually at the end of the introduction, and is usually but not always one sentence long.
This thesis statement tells us the specific topic of the essay advantages and disadvantages of cars and the method of organisation advantages should come first, disadvantages second. It is, however, quite general, and may have been written before the writer had completed the essay.
While cars have undoubted advantages, of which their convenience is the most apparent, they have significant drawbacks, most notably pollution and traffic problems. This thesis gives us more detail, telling us not just the topic advantages and disadvantages of cars and the method of organisation advantages first, disadvantages second , but also tells us the main ideas in the essay convenience, pollution, traffic problems.
This essay will probably have three paragraphs in the main body. Below is a discussion essay which looks at the advantages and disadvantages of car ownership. This essay is used throughout the essay writing section to help you understand different aspects of essay writing. Here it focuses on the thesis statement and general statements of the introduction mentioned on this page , topic sentences , controlling ideas, and the summary and final comment of the conclusion.
Write the purpose statement
Click on the different areas in the shaded boxes to the right to highlight the different structural aspects in this essay. The most striking advantage of the car is its convenience. When travelling long distance, there may be only one choice of bus or train per day, which may be at an unsuitable time. The car, however, allows people to travel at any time they wish, and to almost any destination they choose. Despite this advantage, cars have many significant disadvantages, the most important of which is the pollution they cause.
Topic Sentence Vs Thesis Statement: How They Distinct?
Almost all cars run either on petrol or diesel fuel, both of which are fossil fuels. Burning these fuels causes the car to emit serious pollutants, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxide. Not only are these gases harmful for health, causing respiratory disease and other illnesses, they also contribute to global warming, an increasing problem in the modern world. In short, pollution is a major drawback of cars. A further disadvantage is the traffic problems that they cause in many cities and towns of the world. While car ownership is increasing in almost all countries of the world, especially in developing countries, the amount of available roadway in cities is not increasing at an equal pace.
This can lead to traffic congestion, in particular during the morning and evening rush hour. In some cities, this congestion can be severe, and delays of several hours can be a common occurrence. Such congestion can also affect those people who travel out of cities at the weekend. Spending hours sitting in an idle car means that this form of transport can in fact be less convenient than trains or aeroplanes or other forms of public transport.
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If one writes, "I love New York for three reasons," the fact that he or she loves New York is the topic, and "three reasons" are an indirect thesis statement. The essay will contain the three reasons. If one writes, "I love New York because of the food, the jazz clubs and the Broadway Shows," it is a direct thesis statement that tells what each section or body paragraph is going to be about. Thesis statements help organize and develop the body of the writing piece. They let readers know what the writer's statement is and what it is aiming to prove. A thesis statement does not necessarily forecast organization of an essay which can be more complex than its purpose.
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The thesis statement will reflect the kind of paper being written. There are three kinds of papers: analytical , expository , and argumentative. The structure of a thesis statement depends upon the nature of controlling essay type. In simple terms, first a thesis statement will have a main topic sentence formed from questioning it, then the writer's statement regarding the topic sentence, and finally ends with the specific supporting points detailing the writer's statement for justifying its relation with the topic sentence.
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